You are along the route: THE AGE OF THE GREAT MASTERS. ROME AND THE RENAISSANCE
All the places recommended on this itinerary are open from Tuesday to Saturday. Should you go on a Sunday, the Vatican Museums and Villa Farnesina will be closed. On Mondays, Villa Giulia and Palazzo Venezia are closed, but you can see them from the outside. The inside of the Palazzo della Cancelleria can only be visited on Tuesdays and Saturdays, but you can look in through the entrance any day and admire the beautiful Bramante inspired courtyard.
In 1309, serious political troubles forced the Papacy to be transferred to Avignon. When the Pope made his solemn return to Rome in 1377, the city was in a state of abandon. Interventions were immediately started for the reconstruction of bridges and roads, and attempts were made to relaunch the arts. Sixtus VI, Pope from 1471 to 1484, was the main architect of the renewal of the city, which was restored as the capital city, freeing it of the provincialism which had overtaken it and handing it over to the capable hands of the greatest artists of the time, who were up-to-date on the latest trends in Florentine art. The best representation of his work was the epochal masterpiece which bears his name, the Sistine Chapel, which is the reinvention of a refined language based on classical culture and was to become the peculiar cornerstone of Papal art
The cultural requalification of the city coincided with the restoration of centrality in the power of the Papacy, which was once again determinant in the balance of politics worldwide, especially at the turn of the century, with the energetic Julius II; it was his idea to replace the old Basilica of St. Peter’s with a new, majestic construction, to be the emblem of re-found supremacy.
A grandiose urban and architectural restructuring this took place in the sixteenth century city, on the solid basis laid down in the fifteenth century. Many roads were resurfaced and new networks of roads created, while the Egyptian obelisks of Ancient Rome were relocated as points of orientation for new and unusual views of the city. The Roman Vergine and Trajan aqueducts were restored after centuries and the arches of aqueducts of Claudius and the Marcio were partially reused for the construction of the imposing Felice aqueduct. The precious flow of water for the Capital was most significantly expressed in the innumerable fountains that were built in the streets of the city, monuments of the pride of a city whose rebirth was based on art.